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THE TUNISIAN NATIONAL DIALOGUE QUARTET
In 2015 the Norwegian Nobel Institute awarded the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet the Nobel Peace Prize “for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011.”
The Tunisian case draws our attention to the ways in which business, labor, human rights, and law can work together to build a just and sustainable social order. We welcome all four members of the Quartet to the Forum in September and look forward to learning more about their accomplishments—what has come to be called the “Tunisian method.” What were the salient issues? What were the obstacles, and how did they surmount these?
A central part of their work was constitution writing, a form of inclusive “peace by design” and the constitutional moment that defined the Tunisian Model for peacemaking. The goals of the Forum will draw on the inspiring example and lessons of the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet.
Hassine Abassi, born in a small village in central Tunisia, began his professional career as a teacher and then a high school principal. He started his trade union activity in 1973 as a member of the basic trade union of school supervisors, becoming a member of the General Union of school supervisors and principals. In 1997, he was elected as a member of the Regional Union of Kairouan to become in 2003, its Secretary General. In December 2006, he was elected as a member of the national executive bureau of the General Union of Tunisian Workers, (UGTT). Later, he became the acting deputy Secretary General in charge of research and documentation until December 2011 when he was elected Secretary General of the UGTT. Today, Mr. Abassi remains a standing member of the Executive Bureau and the General Council of the International Trade Union Confederation as UGTT’s Secretary-General and the President of the Arab Trade Unions Confederation.
Mr. Abbassi has long been an ardent support of democracy and a prominent supporter of the Tunisian League for Human Rights, the Tunisian Bar Association and the Tunisian Judges Association, groups which came under intense pressure from the previous regime. He was an outspoken supporter of the mining basin uprising in 2008, a key action in the movement that eventually led to the Arab Spring. He was the head of the delegation that led the negotiation for the elimination of informal labour. This work resulted in an agreement with the government to abolish subcontracting in the civil service and the public sector as well as the integration of those working in subcontracting companies within the civil service and the public sector. During his term as Secretary General, he sponsored the signing of the first Framework agreement for the workers of the agricultural sector, which will help secure the rights of a large segment of agricultural workers who are deprived of the most basic social rights. As President of the UGTT, Mr. Abassi played a key role in management of the National Dialogue Quartet, which allowed Tunisia to achieve the main objectives of the transitional process such as the drafting and the adoption of the Constitution, the promulgation of the Elections Act and the establishment of the High Independence Instances of Elections. His engagement with the major political parties helped successfully transition Tunisia after the Arab Spring to the democracy that Tunisia is today.
Abdesattar Ben Moussa served as President of the Lawyers Section of Tunis from 2001-2004. He was Chairperson of the Tunisian National Order of Lawyers from 2004 – 2007; he has served in a number of leadership capacities, including President of the National Council of the International Lawyers and Coordinator for the Defense of Prisoners in the Mining basin. From 2011 to 2016 Mr. Ben Moussa was President of the Tunisian League for the Defense of Human Rights (LDTH), one of the four organizations that comprised the National Dialogue Quartet. He has been a member of the Presidency Council of the Arab Human Rights since 2012, and has been the Honorary President of the LTDH since October 2016. Starting that year, he became the Ambassador of the International Union of Lawyers (for Peace). In January 2017 Mr. Ben Moussa began service as Mediator of the Republic of Tunisia.
Ouided Bouchamaoui holds a DESS (Master Degree) in International Business from Institut Supérieur de Gestion of Tunis (ISG Business School) and a DESS in International Trade Law from Faculty of Juridical and Political Sciences of Tunis. Shareholder and Administrator of Hedi Bouchamaoui Group (HBG Holding), she is also a founding member of “Connecting Group” (Network of women leaders), and the Vice President of the Tunisian Foundation of control and Governance since 2009. Since May 2011, Mrs. Ouided Bouchamaoui has been the President of UTICA, the Tunisian Confederation of Industry, Trade and Handicrafts (Confederation of Private employers), the first woman elected at this position. In 2013, UTICA, with the UGTT, the Tunisian General Labor Union, the Tunisian Human Rights League (LTDH), and the Tunisian Order of Lawyers formed “The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet.” Mrs. Ouided Bouchamaoui was elected in 2013 as the “Best Business Woman of the Arab World” under the auspices of the G8 Deauville Partnerships, and the “Business for Peace Award” Honoree in 2014. In January 2015, the Tunisian President, Mr. Beji Caid Essebsi, awarded her the Grand Officer of the Order of the Republic –First Class-, and His Majesty the King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden decorated Mrs. Bouchamaoui with the Royal Order of the Polar Star in November 2015. She also received, in December 2015, the “Legion d’honneur” from the French President, Mr. François Hollande. In January 2016, Mrs. Bouchamoui became a member of the Business for Peace Foundation, and joined the Foundation Culture of Peace in September 2016.
Mohamed Fadhel Mahfoudh holds a Master’s Degree in Private Law from the University of Picardie and is a former Bâtonnier of the National Order of the Lawyers of Tunisia. He serves as an Attorney at the Court of Cassation (Appeals Court) in Tunisia and is a University Teacher of the courses of the Certificat d’Aptitude à la Profession d’Avocat 2006-2007. He has served as President of the Regional Council of Sfax of the Tunisian Bar Association and as a member of the Independent High Authority for Elections. From 2013-14, Mr. Mahfoudh served as spokesman for the Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet. Among other distinctions and honors, he holds Badges of the First Class of the Order of the Republic of Tunisia, is a Commander of the Legion of Honor of the French Republic, and received an Arabic Tribute from the Union of Arab Lawyers and an International Tribute from the International Union of Lawyers.
Ambassador Kåre R. Aas presented his credentials to President Obama at the White House on Sept. 17, 2013. Ambassador Kåre R. Aas’s distinguished career with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs began in 1983. He left his position in Oslo as Political Director in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to become the Norwegian Ambassador to the United States. Prior to his assignment as Political Director, Amb. Aas served as the Norwegian Ambassador to the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan from 2008 – 2010. From 2003 – 2008, Amb. Aas served as Director General, Department for Security Policy and the High North. In that capacity he had the bilateral relationships between Norway and the U.S., the Russian Federation and the Central Asian Republics in his portfolio, and chaired and/or was a member of several international groups working on nuclear disarmament and international peacekeeping operations. From 2005 – 2007 he also served as Norwegian Governor to the International Atomic Energy Agency (I.A.E.A.) Board of Governors.
Elijah Anderson is the William K. Lanman, Jr. Professor of Sociology at Yale University. His publications include Code of the Street: Decency, Violence, and the Moral Life of the Inner City (1999), winner of the Komarovsky Award from the Eastern Sociological Society; Streetwise: Race, Class, and Change in an Urban Community (1990), winner of the American Sociological Association’s Robert E. Park Award for the best published book in the area of Urban Sociology, and the classic sociological work, A Place on the Corner (1978; 2nd ed., 2003). Anderson’s most recent ethnographic work, The Cosmopolitan Canopy: Race and Civility in Everyday Life, was published by WW Norton in March 2012. Professor Anderson is the 2013 recipient of the prestigious Cox-Johnson-Frazier Award of the American Sociological Association and the 2017 recipient of the Merit Award of the Eastern Sociological Society.
Liv Arnesen’s rich life experiences, both on and off the ice, have made her an internationally recognized leader and role model for women and girls. A self-proclaimed ‘keen’, but not fanatical, outdoors enthusiast, Arnesen is most interested in the development of adults and children. Through her diverse roles as a polar explorer, educator, and motivational leader, Arnesen inspires others to reach beyond their normal boundaries and achieve their dreams by sharing her own stories about exploring the most remote places on earth. She is a board member the Thor Heyerdahl Institute (of Norway). See her full bio here.
Ann Bancroft, founder of the Ann Bancroft Foundation, is one of the world’s preeminent polar explorers and an internationally recognized leader who is dedicated to inspiring women and girls around the world to unleash the power of their dreams.Through her various roles as an explorer, educator, sought-after speaker and philanthropist, Ann believes that by sharing stories related to her dreams of outdoor adventure, she can help inspire a global audience to pursue their individual dreams. Ann’s teamwork and leadership skills have undergone severe tests during her polar expeditions and provided her with opportunities to shatter female stereotypes. The tenacity and courage that define her character have earned Ann worldwide recognition as one of today’s most influential role models for women and girls. She has been named among Glamour magazine’s “Women of the Year” (2001); featured in the book Remarkable Women of the Twentieth Century (1998); inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame (1995); named Ms. magazine’s “Woman of the Year” (1987); and honored with numerous other awards for her accomplishments.
Isabel Pérez Dobarro is the Project Leader of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) – Youth Initiative’s Project Twenty Thirty, which uses the arts as a tool to raise awareness about the Sustainable Development Goals and the 2030 Agenda. Through this initiative, Isabel has organized artistic events at the Vatican City (Casina Pio IV), Columbia University, New York University, and Madrid´s International Institute, as part of the ICSD, Vatican Youth Symposium, UN Global Initiative at NYU, and VII Congreso Universidad y Desarrollo conferences, and has created a network of international artists committed to the SDGs implementation. Isabel represented SDSN-Youth at the Winter Youth Assembly and represented her organization at the High-Level Debate on the Sustainable Development Goals and at the High-Level Signing Ceremony of the Paris Agreement at the United Nations Headquarters, among other events. In addition, she was selected to participate at the Millenium Campus Network Conference and the World Youth Alliance’s International Solidarity Forum. In addition to her involvement in SDSN-Youth, Isabel is the Western European Representative of the Fair Air Coalition organization . Isabel is a Ph.D. candidate at New York University, and is currently taking law courses at New York University. In addition to her law and sustainability studies, Isabel is a concert pianist who has played at Carnegie Hall, Tchaikovsky Conservatory Moscow, and Ateneo de Madrid, and is a prizewinner of competitions in Spain, Portugal, and the United States.
William J. Doherty, Ph.D. is Professor in the Department of Family Social Science and Director of the Citizen Professional Center at the University of Minnesota. He leads the Families and Democracy Project, which aims to develop the theory and practice of democratic public work by health, education, and human services professionals. He has developed a model of grassroots organizing among parents and other citizens around cultural, community, and health issues. These projects have ranged from the cultural discontents of middle class families (like over-scheduled kids) to challenges of urban single fathers, from medical overuse to the effects of war and trauma on African immigrant communities. Bill is also a therapist working with couples on the brink of divorce through the Minnesota Couples on the Brink Project, where he trains and does research on divorce ambivalence. He is past president of the National Council on Family Relations, the oldest interdisciplinary family studies organization in the United States. Following the 2016 Presidential election, he has been involved in depolarizing work to help restore the fraying social fabric in American society.
Paul Engler is a co-founder of the Momentum Training, which instructs hundreds of activists each year in the principles of effective protest. He is the co-author, along with Mark Engler, of the new book on the craft of mass mobilization, This Is an Uprising: How Nonviolent Revolt Is Shaping the Twenty-First Century (Nation Books). He is the founder of The Center for the Working Poor in Los Angeles, California, an intentional community with core principles of Strategic Nonviolence, Voluntary Simplicity and Intentional Community, Hospitality and Service, Community Building, and Spirituality and Faith in Action. He helps run Get Empathy, a social-emotional learning and leadership development for youth, teaching skills for how to build healthy relationships. He can be reached via the website www.thisisanuprising.org.
For more than 15 years, former Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords has dedicated herself to public service. As the youngest woman ever elected to the Arizona State Senate, she represented her community in the Arizona Legislature from 2000-2005, and then in Congress from 2006-2012. Her success was credited to her reliance on kindness, candor, and hard, grueling work. In Congress, Giffords represented a diverse area that covers 9,000 square miles including a 114-mile border with Mexico. She quickly became a leading champion of border security, energy independence, and the needs of military families and veterans. Consistently ranked as one of the most centrist legislators in Congress, she is a strong supporter of fiscal responsibility, bipartisanship, and government accountability. Congresswoman Giffords, who was first a registered Republican, considers herself a moderate Democrat. On January 8, 2011, at a “Congress On Your Corner” event in Tucson with her constituents, Congresswoman Giffords was shot in the head from near point-blank range. In stepping down from Congress in January 2012, Congresswoman Giffords said, “I will return, and we will work together for Arizona and this great country.” In 2013, Congresswoman Giffords and her husband, Navy combat veteran and retired NASA astronaut Captain Mark Kelly, founded Americans for Responsible Solutions to encourage elected officials to stand up for laws that make communities safer from gun violence. Congresswoman Giffords and Captain Kelly will not allow leaders across the country to forget that Americans are demanding responsible solutions to gun violence. A third generation Arizonan and long-time gun owner, Congresswoman Giffords believes in the constitutional right of all Americans to safe and responsible gun ownership. Congresswoman Giffords holds a Master’s Degree in Regional Planning from Cornell University and a B.A. from Scripps College, where she was awarded a William Fulbright Scholarship to study for a year in Chihuahua, Mexico. She resides in her beloved hometown of Tucson, Arizona.
On May 18, 2015, President Barack Obama accepted the credentials of H.E. Fayçal Gouia, a longtime high ranking member of Tunisia’s Foreign Service, to be Tunisia’s Ambassador to the United States. He received a Master’s degree in 1984 and an advanced Master’s Degree at the National School of Administration in 1989 (Laureate). He later attended the National Defense University in the United States and the National Defense Institute in Tunis and Bourguiba Language Institute of Tunis. Ambassador Gouia served as Head of the Budget Management Division at the Ministry of Finance before moving to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, first as Deputy Director for South Asia and later as Director for the Americas. Ambassador Gouia’s assignments to the Tunisian Embassy in Washington began in 1995 as Cultural and Press Counselor, then went on to be its Economic and Commercial Counselor in 1997 as its Deputy Chief of Mission in 1999. He returned to Tunis in 2001 to head the Americas Department in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Ambassador Gouia received his first ambassadorial assignment beginning in 2006 in Jakarta, Indonesia. He was accredited to Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and, beginning in 2007, to Malaysia and Brunei. Ambassador Gouia returned home in 2010 to become Director General for Africa and the African Union and in 2011 he was appointed Director General for the Americas and Asia in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In January 2014, he was named Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. He held that job until being named Ambassador of Tunisia to Washington. Ambassador Gouia taught International relations at the Diplomatic Institute for Training and Studies of Tunis and at the High Institute of Human Sciences, University of Tunis. Ambassador Gouia is Chevalier of the Republic Order and was granted the Distinguished Alumni Award of the Near East-South Asia Center for Strategic Studies in 2013.
Ulfat Haider has been involved in several projects promoting peaceful co-existence between Jewish and Arab youth in Israel. She has also led and facilitated numerous multicultural and multi-ethnic groups of various ages in wide-ranging projects and initiatives. “When Jews and Arabs are brought together under challenging conditions, away from everything known and familiar,” she says, “They discover that, in the end, they are much more alike than they thought, as beneath their ethnic or national identity they are all, first and foremost, human beings.”
In 2005, Ulfat became a certified instructor at the Outward Bound School in North Carolina, where she worked in the Unity Project. There, she also began working with Arab-Jewish groups and helped to create the Palestinian-Israeli Unity Project (PIUP), a joint effort between Outward Bound and “Breaking the Ice.” This project brought Arab and Jewish teenagers from Israel to the mountains of North Carolina for intensive wilderness expeditions. Currently, Ulfat is working at Beit Ha’Gefen, an Arab–Jewish Cultural Center in Haifa as its Program Manager. Her projects involve leading annual student, girls, and women expeditions to the Alps and the Himalayas. She is one of the seven women members of the Access Water expedition that traveled down the Ganges River in 2015 and will descend the Mississippi River in Fall 2017.
The Rev. Mark S. Hanson, currently a Distinguished Fellow in Augsburg’s Christensen Center for Vocation, leads national and international initiatives to advance interfaith dialogue, inspire peacemaking, and support the College’s commitment to vocational discernment. In addition, he serves as a major gifts advisor for “Always Being Made New: The Campaign for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America.” Prior to his current appointments, Hanson served as presiding bishop of the ELCA. He was elected to this position by the Churchwide Assembly of the ELCA in August 2001 and was reelected in 2007. In 2003, he was elected to serve, concurrently, as president of the Lutheran World Federation, a position he held until 2010. Bishop Hansen graduated from Augsburg College with a B.A. in sociology, was a Rockefeller Fellow at Union Theological Seminary, and received a Master of Divinity degree there in 1972. Hanson is widely known as a leader with an evangelical passion and imagination who embraces the Christian tradition, the Christian community, and the world with both generous goodwill and thoughtful insight. He has been an articulate advocate for the renewal of the church’s preaching and public voice, for the strengthening of ecumenical and inter-religious relationships, and for reconciliation and justice in society, with attention especially to those who live with poverty and discrimination. He is the author of Faithful Yet Changing, the Church in Challenging Times and Faithful and Courageous, Christians in Unsettling Times.
Dag Hareide is a Norwegian organizational leader and author, knighted in the First Order of St. Olav by King of Norway in 2015 for extraordinary innovation in civil society. His extensive and varied career has included, inter alia, serving as General Secretary of Friends of the Earth (Norway), Director of Rainforest Foundation Norway (one of the largest rainforest organizations in the world), Director of the Norwegian Humanistic Academy and Nansen Dialogue Center, Chair of Nordic Association for Conflict Mediation, Chair of Namibia Association of Norway, the Nordic NGO that contributed most in the Namibian liberation struggle, and Rehabilitation Coordinator for United Nations during the famine in Ethiopia in the 1980’s. His written works include Chile during the time of Allende, The Good Norway? (on life quality as opposed to economic growth in Norway), NatureWise (on everyday environmental habits), and Conflict Mediation. A Nordic Perspective, which reflects on the experiences from 300 conflict mediators in five Nordic countries. He is presently working on a book about how bio-, robot-, information- and nano-technologies are influencing our conceptions of human nature. Hareide is a board member the Thor Heyerdahl Institute (of Norway).
Fardosa Hassan graduated from Augsburg in 2012 with a degree in sociology and international relations and currently serves as the Muslim Student Program Associate in Campus Ministry at Augsburg. As a student she was active in interfaith work and received the College’s Courageous Woman Award. She was recognized by President Barack Obama for her work as part of Augsburg’s interfaith work and invited to the White House to take part in the Interfaith Campus Challenge. As a student she interned with the Kenyan Parliament and Lutheran Social Services. Fardosa, who also works as the Interfaith Youth Connection Program Coordinator at Interfaith Action of Greater Saint Paul, describes herself as a “community minded citizen, who wants to make a positive change in the world.”
Captain Mark Kelly, the husband of former Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, is a United States Navy combat veteran, former test pilot, and retired NASA astronaut. As a naval aviator, Captain Kelly made two deployments to the Persian Gulf on the aircraft carrier USS Midway and flew 39 combat missions in Operation Desert Storm. He attended the U.S. Naval Test Pilot School from June 1993 to June 1994 and has logged more than 5,000 hours in more than 50 different aircraft and has over 375 carrier landings. The winner of many awards, including the Defense Superior Service Medal, Legion of Merit and Distinguished Flying Cross, Captain Kelly was selected as an astronaut in 1996. He flew his first of four missions in 2001 aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, the same space shuttle that he commanded on its final flight in May 2011. Captain Kelly has spent more than 50 days in space and is one of only four individuals who has visited the International Space Station on four different occasions. Captain Kelly’s identical twin brother, Scott Kelly, is also an astronaut and recently completed a 340-day mission aboard the International Space Station. They share the distinction of being the only siblings who have traveled to space. Captain Kelly was thrust into the national spotlight in January 2011 after his wife, Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords, was shot in an assassination attempt in Tucson, Arizona. In January 2013, in the wake of the tragedy at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Capt. Kelly and Congresswoman Giffords co-founded Americans for Responsible Solutions, which encourages our country’s leaders to stand up for laws that make our communities safer from gun tragedies. Captain Kelly received a B.S. degree in Marine Engineering from the United States Merchant Marine Academy and a M.S. degree in Aeronautical Engineering from the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The son of two police officers, Captain Kelly is a native of West Orange, New Jersey.
Yemi Melka serves as the UN Focal Point Person for the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN)– Youth Initiative. She is the official representative of SDSN-Youth to the United Nations and all its agencies and programs in New York. She also serves as a coordinator for SDSN Youth projects, activities, and relationships with corporate and civil society stakeholders in New York City. Yemi graduated from Augsburg College in 2015 with a Bachelor of Arts in International Affairs and a Bachelor of Science in Chemistry. She is currently a Master of International Affairs candidate studying in the Energy and Environment program at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA). At Columbia, she is project manager of the SolEnergy Initiative, a Columbia-funded project Yemi started during her first semester, focused on developing Ethiopia’s solar irrigation value chain. Additionally, she is a Co-Director of the Women in Energy program for SIPA’s Energy Association.
Scott Rettberg is Professor of Digital Culture in the department of linguistic, literary, and aesthetic studies at the University of Bergen, Norway. Rettberg is the author or coauthor of novel-length works of electronic literature, films, and new media art projects including The Unknown, Kind of Blue, Implementation, Toxi•City, Hearts and Minds: The Interrogations Project, and others. His creative work has been exhibited online and at international art venues, including the Venice Bienalle, Centre d’Art Santa Mònica, Beall Center, Slought Foundation, Krannert Art Museum, the Chemical Heritage Foundation, and others. Rettberg was the project leader of ELMCIP (Electronic Literature as a Model of Creativity and Innovation in Practice), a HERA-funded collaborative research project that ran from June 2010-June 2013 and is the leader of the Bergen Electronic Literature Research Group. Rettberg is the co-founder and served as the first executive director of the nonprofit Electronic Literature Organization, where he directed major projects funded by the Ford Foundation and the Rockefeller Foundation. At this year’s Forum he will be sharing his work with the Hearts and Minds project, an exploration of the realities of war in the digital age.
Polly O. Walker is of Cherokee descent and a member of the Cherokee Southwest Township. She is currently Director of the Baker Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies and the Elizabeth Evans Baker Professor of Peace Studies at Juniata College. Polly doctoral research focused on conflict transformation between Aboriginal and Settler Australians. She has published widely on topics related to cross cultural issues in conflict transformation, Indigenous approaches to peace, and the role of ritual and performance in peacebuilding. Polly is co-editor, along with Dr. Cynthia Cohen and Prof. Roberto Varea, of Acting Together: Performance and the Creative Transformation of Conflict Vol. I: Resistance and Reconciliation in Regions of Violence, and Vol. II: Building Just and Inclusive Communities. Dr. Walker has worked as lead trainer and program developer in a six-year international Kastom Governance program in Vanuatu, which was conducted under the auspices of the Australian Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, AusAid and The Malvatumauri National Council of Chiefs. Polly also conducted mediation training with the Solomon Islands National Peace Council, and conflict transformation training with an Aboriginal Community Development organization on Palm Island in Queensland, Australia. Polly is Chair of the Indigenous Education Institute (IEI), whose work supports ethical collaboration with Indigenous peoples and revitalization of their knowledge systems, particularly in relation to the sciences.
Alfredo Zamudio is the Director of the Nansen Center for Peace and Dialogue in Lillehammer, Norway, a world authority in facilitation and dissemination of dialogue to peace and inclusive societies. Previously, he was the director of the Internal Displacement Monitoring Center (IDMC) in Geneva, the world’s global leader in the monitoring and analysis of internal displacement worldwide. He has a long career as a human rights and humanitarian aid worker in complex emergencies with missions to the Balkans, Darfur, Timor-Leste and Colombia, with distinguished institutions such as the Norwegian Cross, Norwegian Refugee Council and UNHCR. His personal story began in Chile, where his father was arrested during the military coup in 1973. Alfredo was left alone and homeless as a 12- year old boy and became an internally displaced child. He was reunited with his father three years after, when both left to Norway as refugees in 1976. He was allowed to return to Chile in 1989 and regained his Chilean citizenship in 2006. Alfredo received the Order of Timor- Leste by president Jose Ramos-Horta and in two occasions has been chosen as one of the most prominent persons with migrant background to Norway.